***Research and discuss the basic theories of motivation as well as a description of what they are.***
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During this lecture, we will be describing the various motivational theories and advantages and disadvantages of them.
Smart managers understand that a key factor for a successful business is the manager’s ability to motivate his/her employees. They also understand that what motivates one person might not motivate another, so it can be challenging for them to identify what motivates each person so they can use the best motivational technique.
There are numerous theories as to what motivates employees, so below we will identify and briefly describe five of them.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Abraham Maslow created a Hierarchy of Needs model in the mid-1940s to gain a better understanding of human motivation, management training, and personal development. He believed that it was the responsibility of the organization to provide employees an environment that encourages employees to reach their potential. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a five stage model which assumes that we must satisfy each need in turn, starting with the first, which deals with the most obvious needs for survival itself. He believed that it was only when the lower level needs of physical and emotional well-being are satisfied will we be concerned with the higher order needs of influence and personal development. We will briefly identify and discuss each of the five needs below from lowest to highest.
- Biological and Physiological needs – these are necessities to our survival such as air, food, water, and shelter
- Safety needs – these needs include security, stability, and freedom from fear
- Belongingness and Love needs – these needs include relationships with family, friends, and affection
- Esteem needs – these needs include a sense of achievement, respect and recognition
- Self-Actualization needs – these needs include self-fulfillment, realizing personal potential and seeking personal growth
Path-Goal Theory of Leadership
Robert House created the Path-Goal Theory of Leadership in the early 1970s and asserted that leaders should encourage and support their employees in reaching the organization’s goals. They do this by clearing the path the employees need to take by removing any roadblocks that might hinder them as well as increasing the rewards along the way. House developed four styles of leadership which we will briefly identify and discuss below.
- Supportive leadership – manager care about the needs of their employees by showing concern for their well-being and encourage a friendly working environment.
- Directive leadership – manager tell employees what needs to be accomplished by giving them specific tasks to be completed by specific times.
- Participative leadership – manager consults with their employees and takes their opinions into consideration when making decisions.
- Achievement-oriented leadership – manager sets challenging goals for their employees, has high standards and expectations but shows faith in the abilities of their employees to be successful.
McClelland’s Human Motivation Theory
- David McClelland identified 3 motivating factors that everyone has which are achievement, affiliation, and power. According to McClelland, once a manager understands which motivators are important to each team member, they can adapt their leadership style assign projects based on each member’s motivators. With this information, a smart manager can use it to help their advantage to help their employees stay motivated, feel valued, and appreciated for the work they are doing.
Hersey-Blanchard Situational Leadership Theory
- Dr. Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard came up with the theory that successful leaders should be flexible and adapt their leadership styles based on their employee’s maturity level of employees and the specific tasks that need to be accomplished as opposed to using just one style. By remaining flexible and mastering this theory, managers are able to place the appropriate amount of emphasis on the task, as well as the appropriate amount of emphasis on the relationships with their employees based on what is needed at that time.
Carrot and Stick Motivation Theory
- Jeremy Bentham came up with this traditional motivational theory where he categorizes motivation into two basic parts, incentives and fear. He theorized that some employees are motivated by incentives such as salary raises, promotions or the need for recognition. He also theorized that other employees are motivated by fear such as the fear of being fired, being criticized by a manager or failing to complete a task properly
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