Please answer 2 of the 3 below essay questions. Each answer should be 3 pages long. Total of 6 pages long.
1) Answer 1a or 1b:
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1a. Van Zoonen offers a four-part typology for understanding the importance of “political persona” to modern politics. What is this typology and how does it work through combining the political field with entertainment culture. How is gender significant for women politicians within this typology? Choose two politicians that were not discussed in class or in the article to exemplify two parts of the typology.
1b. What are the characteristics of political satire according to Gray, Jones and Thompson. What are the characteristics of parody. Using a television example of political satire that was not shown in class or in the reading, analyze how the example uses satire and parody as social critique. Explain why you think the example is effective or not in its social critique.
2) Answer 2a or 2b:
2a. Amaya critiques nativist discourse on mainstream English-language media. What is nativism and how does it relate to Amaya’s concept of Citizen Excess and the Liberal State. Provide a television example that exemplifies nativism and one that challenges nativism (please do not use examples from the reading or class lecture). State why you agree and/or disagree with Amaya’s argument.
2b. Cunningham offers a concept of “Ethno-specific mediatized sphericules” for understanding how diasporic communities use popular media. Define this concept and explain how it complicates forms of cultural citizenship that are centered on concepts of a national public sphere. Provide at least one example from the article to illustrate your points. Also provide one example from the class lecture or from your personal experience to illustrate your points.
3) Answer 3a or 3b:
3a. In Hermes’ case study of the media representations of Surinamese football players in the Netherlands, how did representations of race in sport open up possibilities for multicultural forms of citizenship and how did they limit these possibilities, according to Hermes. Use Hermes’ arguments to analyze an example of television, sport and race. Explain how your television example both expands and limits the possibilities for multicultural citizenship in the US. (You may choose any sport of your choice, including NFL football, but please do not use the specific examples shown in class lecture).
3b. Toby Miller considers how three forms of citizenship (political, economic and cultural) are invoked in food programming on television. Define each form of citizenship and provide examples to illustrate each (use at least one example that is not in the book or in the presentation). According to Miller, which forms of citizenship are most prevalent on television today and why is this the case? According to Miller, which forms of citizenship are underrepresented and why is this the case?