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In light of problems posed by the concept of drive, Premack, one of Skinner’s followers, proposes that we consider reinforcement:A.In terms of the length of extinction.B.In terms of the power of discriminative stimuli.C.As ratios between positive and negative reinforcement.D.As the momentary probability of a response.Responses that are intermittently rather than continuously reinforced are:A.Less likely to generalize.B.Less subject to negative reinforcement.C.More difficult to extinguish.D.All of the above.The text indicates how Skinner discussed emotions as the effects of:A.Reinforcement schedules.B.Shaping.C.Discriminative stimuli.D.Behavior chains.Skinner’s attitude toward the theory of natural selection seemed basically:A.Positive.B.Negative.C.Mixed.D.UnclearSkinner argued that internal events such as thoughts:A.Have no place in behaviorism.B.Should only be studied if they can be observed and measured.C.Are less important than Pavlov said they are.D.Are less important than Watson said they areAccording to the text, the most basic difference between Skinner and the developmentalists has to do with:A.The issue of stages.B.The source of developmental change-inner or outer.C.The continuity-discontinuity issue.D.The importance of emotions in the developmental process.An example of a discriminative stimulus is a boy who:A.Is startled by the sight of a dog.B.Works only when immediately rewarded.C.Cries to get attention.D.Works hard only when the teacher says, “This paper will be graded.”The text considers research on televised aggression as:A.Weak.B.Fairly Weak.C.Fairly conclusive.D.Supporting some theorists but not others.In Bandura’s theory, direct reinforcements primarily affect:A.General classes of behavior rather than specific behavior.B.Aggressive behavior rather than other kinds of behavior.C.Altruistic behavior rather than other kinds of behavior.D.Performances rather than the acquisition of responses.Over the years, Bandura has come to view Piaget’s theory as:A.Similar to his own.B.Still wrong in major respects.C.Correct about external standards.D.Correct about stages.Studies on pro-social behavior suggest that:A.Preaching can have strong short-term effects but can backfire.B.Modeling a behavior for children always has stronger effects than issuing orders.C.Practicing and preaching have about the same effects.D.Preaching is always more effective than modeling a behaviorA 3-year old child enthusiastically imitates the behavior of a slightly older child. This imitation most clearly supports the theory of:A.Piaget.B.Bandura.C.Skinner.D.Watson.Five-year olds seem to talk to themselves aloud more often as their work becomes increasingly difficult. This finding supports:A.Piaget.B.Vygotsky.C.Both Piaget and Vygotsky.D.Neither Piaget nor Vygotsky.Luria found that when young children try to give themselves verbal commands:A.They can immediately regulate their behavior.B.They respond to the meaning of their words rather than their words’ signaling function.C.They respond primarily to familiar words.D.They behave as if all commands initiate behavior.One of Vygotsky’s laws was that:A.Behavior begins as action and then become increasingly verbal and logical.B.The dialectic of history manifests itself in the cognitive conflicts between individuals.C.Children first learn the social forms of behavior, then apply it to themselves.D.Logic is simply interiorized action.The text most strongly criticizes Vygotsky’s educational approach for:A.Ignoring Piaget.B.Lack of clarity.C.Overemphasizing social learning.D.Fostering dependence.The text suggests Vygotsky described the interactions between inner and outer forces behind development:A.In a clear and precise way.B.In an imbalanced way.C.In a clearer manner with respect to language than school instruction.D.In a clearer manner for older than younger children.Freud would suggest that a young man’s anxiety over competition probably reflects earlier problems at:A.The first stage.B.The second stage.C.The third stage.D.The fourth stage.What most puzzled Freud about the girl’s Oedipus Complex was:A.Why girls experience penis envy.B.Why girls aren’t as open as boys about sexual matters.C.Why girls feel a need to resolve the crisis.D.Why girls develop a masculinity complex.In general, the strongest fixation seems to be:A.Excessive gratification.B.Excessive frustration.C.Inconsistent care.D.Unconscious fantasies.ESSAY QUESTIONS (INCLUDE CITATIONS)1.What does the text consider to be the major difference between Skinner and Piaget?2.Briefly contrast Bandura’s view of learning with Skinner’s view.3.Contrast the views of Piaget and Bandura on how children develop.4.Compare the views of Piaget and Vygotsky on school instruction in abstract concepts.5.a) Why did Vygotsky believe the “zone of proximal development” provides a better indication of students’ potential than conventional achievement tests? b) In the evaluation section, the textbook author presents a Rousseauist critique of this concept. Discuss one of the points the authors makes.6.a) Describe Freud’s theory of the Oedipal Crisis and its resolution in the boy and the girl. b) Summarize a major criticism of Freud’s theory of the Oedipus complex (with respect to either the boy or the girl).