I need about 120 words for each question and prefer to have each question with individual resources and to be in the last 3-5 yearsMODULE 1Topic 1: Historical Concepts and Theoretical FrameworkDQ 1There were many influences and trends in research leading to the emergence of behaviorism as a separate school of thought. Not all contributors were behavioral researchers. Which theorists contributed most significantly to this evolution? Why?DQ 2Consider the pioneers of behaviorism. Which behaviorist has offered the most significant contributions to the field of psychology? Why?RESOURCESOverskeid, G. (2007). Looking for Skinner and fiinding Freud. American Psychologist, 62(6), 590-595. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.62.6.590URL:, S. F. (2012). Behaviorism at 100. American Scientist, 100(1), 60-65. doi:10.1511/2012.94.60URL:, R. E. (2004). The classical origins of Pavlov’s conditioning. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 39(4), 279-294. doi:10.1007/BF02734167URL:, C. D. (2009). Darwinian theory, functionalism, and the first American psychologicalrevolution. American Psychologist, 64(2), 75-83. doi: 10.1037/a0013338URL:, J. W. (2018). Structuralism and functionalism. In Salem Press Encyclopedia of Health.URL: 2Topic 2: Watson and Classical S-R (Stimulus Response) BehaviorismDQ 1John Watson was significantly critical of psychology including the study of consciousness via introspection. How does he propose to solve this issue? Do you believe that introspection is important in changing behavior? Why or why not?DQ 2What was Watson’s view of the environment? Do you agree with his Behaviorist Manifesto? Why or why not?RESOURCESWatson, J. B. (1913). Psychology as the behaviorist views it. Psychological Review, 20(2), 158-177. doi:10.1037/h0074428URL:, N., Powell, R. A., & Harris, B. (2014). Little Albert’s alleged neurological impairment.History of Psychology, 17(4), 312-324. doi:10.1037/a0037325URL:, J. (2016). Theoretical foundations: Creating a theoretical framework to guide development of research questions and hypotheses [Presentation].URL: 3Topic 3: Neo- and Radical BehaviorismDQ 1Based on your analysis of Hull and Tolman’s work, was neo-behaviorism the best response to the issue of classical S-R behaviorism? Support your position.DQ 2Skinner’s radical behaviorism and operant conditioning differ from Watson’s classical behaviorism and classical conditioning. Which approach do you most agree with? Why?RESOURCESAnindyarini, A., Rokhman, F., Mulyani, M., & Andayani2. (2018). Behavioristic theory and its application in the learning of speech. KnE Publishing.URL:, E. C. (1922). A new formula for behaviorism. Psychological Review, 29(1), 44-53. doi:10.1037/h0070289URL:, M. R. (1995). B. F. Skinner’s radical behaviorism: Historical misconstructions and groundsfor feminist reconstructions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19(2), 161-179. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6402.1995.tb00285xURL:, C. L. (1934). The concept of the habit-family hierarchy, and maze learning. Part 1.Psychological Review, 41(1), 33-54. doi:10.1037/h0070758URL: 4DQ 1What are the most significant points from Chomsky’s critique on Skinner? Do you agree or disagree with Chomsky’s critique of Skinner? Why or Why not?DQ 2How does Bandura’s concept of self-efficacy relate to your pursuit of obtaining your terminal degree? What strategies can you use to improve your self-efficacy in your academic research and writing?RESOURCESChomsky, N. (1959). A review of B. F. Skinner’s verbal behavior. Language, 35(1), 26-58. doi: 10.2307/411334URL:, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology,52, 1-26. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1URL:, D. H. (2012). Social cognitive theory. In K. R. Harris, S. Graham, & T. Urdan (Eds.), APAeducational psychology handbook: Volume 1. Theories, constructs, and critical issues (pp. 101-123). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi: 10.1037/13273-005URL: 5DQ 1A gap exists between cognitive and behavioral psychology because cognitive theorists maintain that our approach to behavioral change rests solely in the way we think about the behavior. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the cognitive theorists? Support your position. Can the gap between cognitive and behavioral psychology be bridged? Why or why not?DQ 2Might a cognitive-affective processing system provide a more thorough understanding of an individual’s personality than older models (e.g. Freud’s theory of personality)? Why or why not? Support your view with relevant current research.RESOURCESOkon-Singer, H., Hendler, T., Pessoa, L., & Shackman. A. J. (2015). The neurobiology of emotion-cognition interactions: Fundamental questions and strategies for future research.Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9, 1-4. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2015.00058URL:, J. (2013). Tutorial: Cognitive psychology as a radical behaviorist views it. The Psychological Record, 63(3), 667-680.URL:, W., & Shoda, Y. (1995). A cognitive-affective system theory of personality: Reconceptualizing situations, dispositions, dynamics, and invariance in personality structure. Psychological Review, 102(2), 246-268.URL: 6DQ 1To what extent might attribution theory provide and understanding of a person’s behavior? How can a person in a leadership position (e.g. teacher, parent, coach, or supervisor) use this theory to motivate an unmotivated individual? Support your view with relevant current research.DQ 2To what extent, if at all, can Deci and Ryan’s (2008) self-determination theory assist individuals in their personal or professional goals? Support your view with relevant current research.RESOURCESLocke, E. A., & Schattke, K. (2018). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: Time for expansion and clarification. Motivation Science, 1-15. doi:10.1037/mot0000116URL: , E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Facilitating optimal motivation and psychological well-being across life’s domains. Canadian Psychology, 49(1), 14-23.URL:, C. P., Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2009). The path taken: Consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality, 43(3), 291-306.URL: 7DQ 1It is suggested effects of oxytocin explain altruistic behaviors. Should this knowledge be used to promote prosocial behaviors? Why or why not? Support your position with relevant research and examples.DQ 2With the understanding that etiology of impulse control issues associated with treatments for Parkinson’s disease is complex, consider the ethical concerns of any psychopharmacological treatment that may lead to gambling, increase risk-taking behaviors, or other potentially harmful behaviors. Is such treatment worth the risks of potential side-effects? Why or why not? Support your view. How does your personal worldview influence your position in this discussion? Explain.RESOURCESBotvinick, M., & Braver, T. (2015). Motivation and cognitive control: From behavior to neuralmechanism. Annual Review of Psychology, 66, 83-113. doi:10.1146/annurev-psych-010814-015044URL:, R., Javor, A., Gefen, D., Felten, A., & Reuter, M. (2017). Oxytocin, trust, and trustworthiness:The moderating role of music. Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics, 10(1), 1-8. doi:10.1037/npe0000070URL:, A. C., Dagher, A., & Fellows, L. K. (2012). Dissecting the effects of disease and treatmenton impulsivity in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 18(6), 942-951. doi: 10.1017/S135561771200094XURL:, M., Toth, I., Reber, S. O., Slattery, D. A., Veenema, A. H., & Neumann, I. D. (2011). The neuropeptide oxytocin facilitates pro-social behavior and prevents social avoidance in rats and mice. Neuropsychopharmacology, 36(11), 2159-2168. doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.95URL: 8DQ 1Why is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) effective? In a nonclinical sense, how can CBT or behavior analysis help a doctoral learner succeed?DQ 2Reflect on three of the articles you have chosen for the literature review assignment. How will these articles help you proceed from here?RESOURCESCristea, I. A., Montgomery, G. H., Szamoskozi, S., & David, D. (2013). Key constructs in “classical” and “new wave” cognitive behavioral psychotherapies: Relationships among each other and with emotional distress. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 69(6), 584-599.URL:, D. C., Iwata, B. A., & Hanley, G. P. (2013). Applied behavior analysis. In G. J. Madden (Ed.), APA Handbook of Behavior Analysis: Volume 1. Methods and Principles (pp. 81-104). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.URL:, A. (2013). Chapter 6: Behavioral activation. In Strategic decision making in cognitive behavioral therapy  (pp. 127-143). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.URL:, C., Jones, A., Davis, M., Jacob, M. L., Morelen, D., Thomassin, K., & Whitehead, M. (2018). Emotion-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for youth with anxiety disorders: A randomized trial. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 46(3), 569-580. doi:10.1007/s10802-017-0319-0URL:, J. K., Andrews, L. A., Witcraft, S. M., Powers, M. B., Smits, J. A. J., & Hofmann, S. G. (2108). Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and related disorders: A meta‐analysis of randomized placebo‐controlled trials. Depression and Anxiety, 35(6), 502-514.URL:

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