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# Statistics Multiple Choice Questions

The statement that a person who scores 120 has twice as much of the trait being measured as someone who scores 60 is appropriate for:a variable measured on an interval scalea variable measured on a ratio scaleany continuous variableany test whose scores are normally distributedQuestion 2 0.5 ptsWhich of these is a discrete measure?How many points you earn on a testHow many inches you grew in a yearHow many term papers are due this semesterHow many hours you study for an examQuestion 3 0.5 ptsIt is not possible to report the average score for data measured on what type of scale?nominalordinalintervalratioQuestion 4 0.5 ptsJane’s percentile rank on a science exam is 78. This means that:Jane answered 78% of the questions correctly on the examJane’s score was equal to or greater than 78% of the other students’ scoresJane achieved a score of 78% on the examJane scored the same as 78% of the other studentsQuestion 5 0.5 ptsRudy scores 83% on a test. From that, we know that:Rudy’s percentile rank is 83%83% of the people who took the test scored the same or lower than RudyRudy scored above averageOut of 100 possible points, Rudy scored 83 pointsQuestion 6 0.5 ptsHere is a set of scores: 3,6,2,9,4,7,5,7,7,5. If the scores were entered into a frequency table, what would be the cumulative frequency?791055Question 7 0.5 ptsYour data consist of the average family size for all families within each of six different income levels. What type of visual display would best convey the data?histogramline graphbar chartfrequency tableQuestion 8 0.5 ptsYou are constructing a histogram for scores that range from 70 to 100 in whole points. Frequencies range from 3 to 10; that is, every whole-point score between 60 and 100 occurs at least 3 times, and at least one score occurs 10 times. Which of these would probably be the best range and size for the score intervals along the X-axis?1-point intervals from 70 and 1001-point intervals from 0 and 1005-point intervals from 70 and 10010-point intervals from 70 and 100Question 9 10 ptsYou are looking at a frequency table for a large number of scores. Without doing any further calculating, which measure of central tendency can you immediately report?modemedianmeannone of theseQuestion 10 10 ptsIn a set of raw scores for a teacher-constructed test, what will be the shape of the distribution around the mean?normalbimodalskewedit could be distributed in any of these waysQuestion 11 0.5 ptsFrom the standard deviation, we know something about the:general location of most scores within a scores distributionspread of scores within the scores distributionshape of the scores distributionfrequency at each score valueQuestion 12 0.5 ptsYou select a sample of 50 scores from a population of 2,000 scores. You compute the range and standard deviation on the sample of 50 scores. You then select another sample of 50 scores from the same population. What measure of dispersion is likely to vary most between your first and second samples?the rangethe standard deviationthey will both vary by the same amountthere is no way to know which one will likely vary mostQuestion 13 0.5 ptsHere is a set of scores: 5, 5, 8, 14, 22, 22. If the set of scores is changed to 6, 6, 8, 14, 21, 21, how will these changes affect the standard deviation?It will decrease the standard deviationIt will increase the standard deviationIt will have no effect on the standard deviationThere is not enough information to tellQuestion 14 0.5 ptsThe probability of rolling a 3 on a die is .17 over the long term (under an infinite number of rolls). What is the probability of rolling a 3 on a single roll?.00.17.831.00Question 15 0.5 ptsThe probability of drawing a heart from a deck of cards is .25 over the long term (under an infinite number of draws). What is the probability of getting a heart on a single draw?.00.25.751.00Question 16 0.5 ptsA market researcher obtains a list of all streets in a town. She randomly samples 10 street names from the list, and then administers survey questions to every family living on those 10 streets. What type of sampling is this?simple randomstratified randomclusterconvenienceQuestion 17 0.5 ptsIn an experiment to determine the effect of exercise on weight-loss among postmenopausal women who are employed outside the home, what is the DEPENDENT variable?exercisemenopausal statusemployment statusweight lossQuestion 18 0.5 pts“Dogs that receive regular veterinary care live longer than those who do not receive such care.” What type of hypothesis is this?nulldirectionalnon-directionaldouble-barreledQuestion 19 0.5 pts“There will be no difference in the activity level of hyperactive children given medication and those not given medication.” What type of hypothesis is this?nulldirectionalnon-directionaldouble-barreledQuestion 20 0.5 ptsA researcher plans to conduct a one-tailed test of her hypothesis at the .05 error level. Just before running the experiment, she decides that a two-tailed test is more appropriate. If she does not adjust the error level, how much error will her new study permit in a single tail?.10.05.025There is not enough information to tellQuestion 21 0.5 ptsProfessor Stringent conducts his study at a .01 error level. Professor Lax conducts his study at a .10 error level. Whose study is the better study?Professor Stringent’sProfessor Lax’sBoth professors’ studies are equally worthyThere is not enough information to tellQuestion 22 0.5 ptsThe probability of a score falling at or below a particular z score is .8734. If you reject the null hypothesis, what is your Type 1 error level?87.34%12.66%0.13%There is not enough information to tellQuestion 23 0.5 ptsWhat is the probability of a Type 1 error if you reject the null hypothesis based on a z score of .50?0%50%100%It depends on the individual values of the raw scoresQuestion 24 0.5 ptsAssume that a population of scores is normally distributed with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 10. For samples of size 25, we would expect 95% of the sample means (not of the raw scores) to fall between what two values?30 and 7040 and 5546 and 5451 and 59Question 25 0.5 ptsA population has a mean of 300 and a standard deviation of 25. You draw a random sample from that population. What is the sample’s most likely mean?025300There is not enough information to tellQuestion 26 0.5 ptsIf the population mean is 50 and the standard deviation is 5, what is the normal deviate Z for a sample of 20 people with a mean of 46?-4.46-3.571.12-0.25Question 27 0.5 ptsA two-tailed t test study for a single sample of 28 participants yields a t of -2.35. Look up this value in a t-table. Given the fixed number of participants, what is the lowest tabled alpha level at which this t is statistically significant?1%2%5%10%Question 28 0.5 ptsIn a one-sample t test, if the observed sample mean turns out to be one that would rarely occur when the null hypothesis is true, what should the researcher do?reject the null hypothesisretain the null hypothesisrepeat the test until we get a more probable sample meanchange the level of significance (Type I error)Question 29 0.5 ptsA research report says that t (63) = 1.99; p = .03. From that information, can you reject the null hypothesis with 95% confidence?yesnoit depends on the sample sizeit depends on the size of the Type 1 errorQuestion 30 0.5 ptsWhich of these confidence intervals would include the widest range of scores?68%95%99%All confidence intervals are a standard rangeQuestion 31 0.5 ptsWhat is the mean of any sampling distribution of the difference between the means?0The same as the difference between the two sample means in the studyThe square root of the combined sample size of the two samples in the studyIt depends on the value of the raw scores in the two sampling distributionsQuestion 32 0.5 ptsFor a very small sample size, you should expect the size of the standard error of the difference between the means to be:larger than usualabout the same size as usualsmaller than usualalmost zeroQuestion 33 0.5 ptsIn a two-sample t test, if the observed difference between the sample means turns out to be one that could easily occur when the null hypothesis is true, what should we do?Reject the null hypothesisRetain the null hypothesisRepeat the test until we get a less probable difference between the meansChange the level of significance (Type 1 error)Question 34 0.5 ptsWhich of these would be a related samples study?1. Amount of sugar added to coffee by men versus women2. Running speed for soccer players pre-season versus post-season3. Number of hours the members of a class study for a weekly quiz versus a unit exam1 and 2 only1 and 3 only2 and 3 only1, 2 and 3Question 35 0.5 ptsThe hypothesis testing procedure for comparing means of RELATED samples would be appropriate for comparing:differences in the religious beliefs of best friendsthe distance that 12-year-olds versus 14-year-olds can kick a soccer ballfinal grades in a course taught by Professor Jones compared with final grades in a course taught by Professor Smithbirth weights of babies born to drug-addicted mothers and birth weights of babies born to mothers who are not drug-addictedQuestion 36 0.5 ptsThe hypothesis testing procedures for comparing means of INDEPENDENT samples would be appropriate for comparing:IQ scores of children attending a public elementary school as they progress from grade to gradehusbands’ and wives’ attitudes toward higher educationmale and female problem-solving skills (number of moves toward the correct solution) on a spatial puzzle tasksoftware “usefulness” ratings by users who try both Software A and Software BQuestion 37 10 pts“Children whose parents smoke in their presence are more likely to develop asthma than children whose parents do not smoke in their presence.” How many tails should be used when looking up the t test statistic for this study?one tailtwo tailseither one tail or two tails (it doesn’t matter)there is not enough information to tellQuestion 38 0.5 ptsWhen subjects who are treated in the SAME way differ in performance, what accounts for their measured difference?between-groups variationwithin-groups variationtotal variationtreatment variationQuestion 39 0.5 ptsWhen subjects who are treated in the SAME way differ in performance, what accounts for their measured difference?random errorthe treatmentthe IV (independent variable)this cannot happenQuestion 40 0.5 pts”One way” means that:there is only one correct way to calculate the test statisticthe results can be in only one directionthere is only one sample (group) in the studythere is only one IV (independent variable) in the studyQuestion 41 0.5 ptsThe appropriate statistic to use when testing the hypothesis for a study with three treatment groups is a:one-sample t testtwo-sample t testANOVA F testPearson’s correlation coefficientQuestion 42 0.5 ptsYou have conducted an analysis of variance and found no statistical significance in the F. Should you then calculate a post hoc test?Yes, to see where the hidden significance might lieYes, to locate the confounding variables that might have masked the effectYes, to validate your non-significant FNo, because there is there is no statistical significance to be foundQuestion 43 0.5 ptsYou conduct an ANOVA at the .05 error level and find a significant F. You conduct a Tukey HSD post hoc test on the same data at the same .05 error level and find no significant difference between the particular groups. From these results, you know that:the sample size in each group was not sufficient to pick up the effect detected by the F testthe variation within each group masked the variation between the groupsyou should have conducted your Tukey HSD at the .01 error levelyou have made a calculation error in either the F test or the Tukey HSDQuestion 44 0.5 ptsYour chi-square study has 4 categories or conditions of the first variable and 4 levels or conditions of the second variable. How many degrees of freedom are in this study?78916Question 45 0.5 ptsYou are testing the hypothesis that the average salary of college graduates 1 year out of college is related to the graduates’ genders and to the graduates’ fields of study. What is the appropriate analytic technique for this study?two-sample t-testanalysis of variancechi-square goodness of fitchi-square test of independenceQuestion 46 0.5 ptsYou are testing the hypothesis that the grade point averages differs between college athletes and non-athletes. What is the appropriate analytic technique for this study?two-sample t-testPearson correlation coefficientchi-square goodness of fitchi-square test of independenceQuestion 47 0.5 ptsIn a correlational study, we seek to determine:if the independent variable causes an outcome in the dependent variablewhich variable is the cause and which variable is the effectthe direction of causationhow well one variable predicts another variableQuestion 48 0.5 ptsIn a scatterplot, the data for a negative correlation will graph in what direction?from the bottom left to the upper rightfrom the upper left to the bottom rightparallel to the horizontal X-axisparallel to the vertical Y-axisQuestion 49 0.5 ptsIn a scatter diagram, if one of the points does not fall on the straight line of best fit to the data points, then r cannot be:0+1.00 or -1.00positivenegativeQuestion 50 0.5 ptsWhich one of the following would most likely show a negative correlation?verbal aptitude and number of books read per yearbody weight and age at which puberty was reachedamount of alcohol ingested and driving abilityeducational level and incomeQuestion 51 0.5 ptsThe usefulness of a screening test for selecting college students for inclusion in an Honors program implies what type of relationship between the screening test and college grade point average (GPA)?positivenegativecurvilinearperfectQuestion 52 0.5 ptsWhich of these correlations is the strongest?-0.750.00+0.50+0.67Question 53 0.5 ptsAssume that, for variables X and Y, the statistics are as follows:Variable X Variable YMean = 50 Mean = 100Stand. Dev. = 10 Stand. Dev. = 20rxy = +1.00What would be the predicted score on variable Y for a person who scores 40 on variable X? (Note: This can be answered without any formulas or calculations)4080100120Question 54 0.5 ptsIf r = −1.00, which one of the following will be true?Scores on X will be of no use in predicting scores on Y.Scores on X can be perfectly predicted from scores on Y.The scores on X and Y are both negative.The relationship becomes difficult to interpret.Question 55 0.5 ptsFor the regression equation Y’ = bX + a, what is the value of the criterion for someone who scores 60 on the predictor, where the correlation is .75, and where the prediction line’s Y-intercept is 5?4548.755055Question 56 0.5 ptsYou conduct a study with four uncorrelated predictors. Then you remove one of the predictors. How should the removal of this predictor change the R2?it will go upit will go downit will stay the samethere is not enough information to tellQuestion 57 0.5 ptsThe main difference between a simple and multiple regression is:the number of dependent variablesthe number of independent variablesthe scales of measure of the independent variablesthe size of the samplesQuestion 58 0.5 ptsIn a curvilinear relationship:the variables are unrelateda scatterplot provides little information about the variablesthe trend of the variables changes directionan additional variable is necessary to explain the relationshipQuestion 59 0.5 ptsAnother term for a regression intercept is:unexplained variancecollinearityheterogenityconstantQuestion 60 0.5 ptsNationwide, undergraduate college enrollment by gender is 55% female and 45% male. A professor wants to know the opinions of male versus female undergraduates nationwide. To ensure equal representation of the two genders, what sampling method should the professor use?simple randomstratified randomclusterconvenience